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聪明机器难威胁智力运动

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月23日 03:03:08
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(  ■本)(期)(特)(邀)(嘉)(宾)(
  国)(家)(体)(育)(总)(局)(信)(息)(所)(研)(究)(员)(
  郑)(斌)(
  北)(京)(社)(科)(院)(研)(究)(员)(
  金)(汕)(
  这)(几)(天)(发)(生)(在)(全)(世)(界)(的)(新)(闻)(事)(件)(中)(,有)(三)(个)(事)(件)(都)(与)(智)(能)(或)(者)(说)(科)(技)(有)(关)(,一)(是)(人)(机)(智)(能)(大)(比)(拼)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(“阿)(法)(狗)(”赢)(了)(欧)(洲)(围)(棋)(冠)(军)(,即)(将)(迎)(接)(李)(世)(石)(的)(挑)(战)(;二)(是)(不)(久)(前)(的)(世)(界)(越)(野)(自)(行)(车)(锦)(标)(赛)(中)(有)(人)(作)(弊)(给)(自)(行)(车)(装)(了)(马)(达)(,事)(实)(上)(比)(马)(达)(高)(大)(上)(的)(智)(能)(设)(备)(在)(自)(行)(车)(上)(比)(比)(皆)(是)(;三)(是)(日)(前)(英)(国)(科)(学)(家)(关)(于)(基)(因)(优)(化)(的)(申)(请)(得)(到)(英)(国)(政)(府)(的)(批)(准)(,这)(让)(优)(化)(基)(因)(人)(群)(的)(出)(现)(成)(为)(可)(能)(。看)(似)(不)(相)(关)(的)(新)(闻)(,但)(都)(与)(体)(育)(有)(关)(,在)(日)(益)(发)(达)(的)(科)(技)(面)(前)(,人)(机)(智)(力)(比)(拼)(人)(脑)(还)(有)(优)(势)(吗)(?在)(各)(种)(高)(科)(技)(配)(套)(设)(施)(基)(础)(上)(,是)(人)(在)(参)(与)(体)(育)(还)(是)(智)(能)(设)(备)(呢)(?科)(技)(优)(化)(基)(因)(后)(,体)(育)(的)(未)(来)(又)(会)(是)(怎)(样)(呢)(?对)(此)(,本)(期)(三)(言)(两)(拍)(特)(邀)(国)(家)(体)(育)(总)(局)(信)(息)(所)(研)(究)(员)(郑)(斌)(、北)(京)(社)(科)(院)(研)(究)(员)(金)(汕)(作)(一)(探)(讨)(。
  聪)(明)(机)(器)(威)(胁)(智)(力)(运)(动)(?
  金)(汕)(:老)(实)(说)(,看)(到)(这)(则)(消)(息)(我)(并)(没)(有)(特)(别)(的)(感)(觉)(,这)(种)(人)(与)(电)(脑)(的)(“脑)(力)(”对)(抗)(新)(闻)(也)(不)(是)(第)(一)(次)(出)(来)(,我)(觉)(得)(这)(次)(的)(这)(个)(“阿)(法)(狗)(”战)(胜)(欧)(洲)(围)(棋)(手)(甚)(至)(要)(挑)(战)(李)(世)(石)(事)(件)(也)(不)(新)(鲜)(,远)(没)(有)(当)(年)(卡)(斯)(帕)(罗)(夫)(与)(电)(脑)(对)(弈)(来)(得)(精)(彩)(,好)(像)(关)(于)(人)(脑)(还)(是)(电)(脑)(谁)(厉)(害)(的)(讨)(论)(当)(时)(更)(为)(热)(烈)(。其)(实)(,这)(个)(“阿)(法)(狗)(”与)(当)(时)(和)(卡)(斯)(帕)(罗)(夫)(下)(棋)(的)(电)(脑)(没)(多)(大)(差)(别)(,都)(是)(把)(数)(目)(众)(多)(的)(棋)(谱)(输)(入)(程)(序)(后)(电)(脑)(自)(动)(识)(别)(,只)(不)(过)(比)(过)(去)(的)(电)(脑)(更)(为)(智)(能)(化)(,我)(看)(具)(有)(很)(强)(的)(学)(习)(能)(力)(。有)(人)(担)(心)(电)(脑)(超)(越)(人)(脑)(,智)(力)(运)(动)(失)(去)(意)(义)(了)(,我)(觉)(得)(大)(可)(不)(必)(,所)(谓)(对)(弈)(,不)(仅)(对)(的)(是)(棋)(艺)(、智)(力)(,更)(比)(的)(是)(心)(理)(,这)(是)(人)(机)(对)(弈)(所)(不)(具)(有)(的)(,况)(且)(再)(高)(科)(技)(的)(智)(能)(机)(器)(也)(是)(人)(做)(出)(来)(的)(,就)(算)(赢)(了)(所)(有)(棋)(手)(也)(不)(能)(代)(表)(比)(人)(类)(聪)(明)(。
  白)(志)(标)(:对)(这)(个)(“机)(器)(狗)(”战)(胜)(欧)(洲)(棋)(手)(的)(新)(闻)(开)(始)(我)(也)(没)(觉)(得)(有)(什)(么)(特)(别)(之)(处)(,毕)(竟)(就)(围)(棋)(技)(艺)(来)(说)(,中)(日)(韩)(才)(是)(最)(高)(水)(平)(,所)(以)(这)(只)(“狗)(”有)(多)(厉)(害)(还)(难)(说)(,就)(算)(它)(学)(习)(能)(力)(超)(强)(,计)(算)(能)(力)(超)(强)(,但)(智)(能)(化)(的)(复)(杂)(程)(度)(远)(远)(赶)(不)(上)(人)(脑)(结)(构)(。我)(看)(过)(一)(个)(资)(料)(,说)(我)(们)(对)(大)(脑)(的)(开)(发)(利)(用)(仅)(仅)(是)(潜)(力)(的)(九)(牛)(一)(毛)(。不)(过)(,从)(另)(一)(个)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,这)(种)(智)(能)(“狗)(”还)(确)(实)(有)(可)(能)(冲)(击)(到)(棋)(类)(运)(动)(,不)(是)(已)(经)(有)(人)(不)(用)(去)(找)(老)(师)(练)(习)(棋)(艺)(了)(吗)(,假)(如)(它)(的)(水)(平)(比)(李)(世)(石)(、古)(力)(等)(顶)(级)(棋)(手)(都)(高)(,处)(于)(孤)(独)(求)(败)(状)(态)(,极)(有)(可)(能)(引)(发)(棋)(手)(们)(更)(多)(时)(间)(去)(和)(机)(器)(对)(弈)(,从)(而)(逐)(渐)(放)(弃)(人)(与)(人)(这)(种)(传)(统)(对)(弈)(方)(式)(。我)(看)(古)(力)(也)(说)(,相)(信)(电)(脑)(一)(定)(会)(超)(越)(人)(脑)(,“若)(连)(围)(棋)(也)(能)(被)(计)(算)(机)(超)(越)(,那)(是)(否)(以)(后)(就)(是)(计)(算)(机)(的)(天)(下)(?”
  郑)(斌)(:我)(觉)(得)(,提)(出)(智)(能)(化)(机)(器)(人)(战)(胜)(人)(的)(大)(脑)(这)(种)(说)(法)(就)(是)(个)(伪)(概)(念)(,包)(括)(智)(力)(运)(动)(是)(不)(是)(还)(有)(存)(在)(的)(意)(义)(等)(,我)(只)(问)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,这)(个)(智)(能)(机)(器)(人)(是)(怎)(么)(来)(的)(,是)(天)(上)(掉)(下)(来)(的)(呢)(,还)(是)(人)(制)(造)(出)(来)(的)(?大)(家)(看)(了)(很)(多)(科)(幻)(电)(影)(,最)(后)(的)(结)(局)(是)(什)(么)(呢)(,毫)(无)(疑)(问)(都)(是)(人)(类)(获)(胜)(了)(。我)(觉)(得)(常)(昊)(那)(句)(话)(说)(得)(挺)(好)(,围)(棋)(的)(基)(础)(还)(是)(人)(,人)(是)(有)(情)(感)(、有)(温)(度)(的)(,在)(这)(个)(意)(义)(上)(围)(棋)(不)(只)(是)(胜)(负)(,更)(是)(一)(个)(锻)(炼)(、塑)(造)(人)(的)(一)(个)(非)(常)(好)(的)(东)(西)(。因)(此)(,不)(管)(是)(围)(棋)(还)(是)(其)(他)(智)(力)(运)(动)(总)(是)(有)(其)(存)(在)(的)(必)(要)(性)(,这)(种)(智)(能)(化)(机)(器)(,说)(到)(底)(就)(是)(一)(种)(智)(力)(运)(动)(新)(的)(展)(现)(发)(誓)(,就)(像)(这)(几)(年)(火)(极)(了)(的)(电)(商)(,充)(其)(量)(是)(更)(换)(了)(一)(种)(销)(售)(平)(台)(,你)(说)(它)(能)(脱)(离)(了)(背)(后)(的)(实)(体)(产)(业)(吗)(?
  器)(材)(高)(科)(技)(运)(动)(何)(意)(义)(?
  白)(志)(标)(:现)(在)(一)(个)(不)(容)(怀)(疑)(的)(事)(实)(是)(,体)(育)(越)(来)(越)(依)(赖)(高)(科)(技)(,尤)(其)(是)(在)(器)(材)(方)(面)(,甚)(至)(所)(用)(器)(材)(的)(科)(技)(含)(量)(高)(低)(直)(接)(决)(定)(比)(赛)(结)(果)(,这)(也)(是)(这)(次)(世)(界)(越)(野)(自)(行)(车)(有)(人)(要)(采)(取)(加)(装)(马)(达)(的)(作)(弊)(手)(法)(的)(原)(因)(。其)(实)(,即)(便)(是)(没)(有)(马)(达)(这)(回)(事)(,赛)(场)(上)(的)(自)(行)(车)(科)(技)(含)(量)(跟)(10年)(前)(相)(比)(提)(升)(了)(很)(多)(,同)(样)(一)(名)(自)(行)(车)(手)(,用)(10年)(前)(的)(自)(行)(车)(和)(现)(在)(的)(自)(行)(车)(进)(行)(相)(同)(距)(离)(的)(骑)(行)(,成)(绩)(上)(可)(以)(说)(天)(壤)(之)(别)(。之)(前)(游)(泳)(选)(手)(的)(“鲨)(鱼)(皮)(”泳)(衣)(,不)(也)(直)(接)(导)(致)(了)(选)(手)(运)(动)(成)(绩)(的)(大)(幅)(提)(升)(,所)(以)(,与)(其)(说)(选)(手)(成)(绩)(提)(高)(,还)(不)(如)(说)(是)(泳)(衣)(本)(身)(科)(技)(含)(量)(提)(升)(。从)(这)(种)(意)(义)(上)(来)(说)(,参)(与)(比)(赛)(的)(人)(只)(不)(过)(是)(一)(个)(技)(术)(熟)(练)(的)(“驾)(驶)(员)(”,比)(的)(是)(器)(材)(,比)(的)(是)(器)(材)(的)(科)(技)(水)(平)(,我)(觉)(得)(确)(实)(会)(引)(发)(“这)(还)(是)(体)(育)(比)(赛)(吗)(”的)(一)(些)(困)(惑)(。
  金)(汕)(:我)(的)(看)(法)(是)(你)(的)(这)(种)(论)(断)(不)(成)(立)(,就)(说)(这)(比)(赛)(器)(材)(,同)(样)(是)(鲨)(鱼)(皮)(泳)(衣)(,那)(怎)(么)(有)(人)(就)(能)(破)(世)(界)(纪)(录)(,有)(人)(就)(不)(行)(呢)(?就)(算)(是)(你)(说)(的)(“驾)(驶)(员)(’,还)(有)(个)(操)(控)(技)(术)(高)(低)(的)(区)(分)(,况)(且)(时)(代)(在)(发)(展)(,科)(技)(水)(平)(在)(提)(升)(,这)(些)(运)(动)(器)(材)(的)(内)(涵)(自)(然)(也)(在)(扩)(展)(,我)(觉)(得)(这)(与)(体)(育)(的)(魅)(力)(完)(全)(不)(冲)(突)(。就)(说)(F1,车)(的)(科)(技)(含)(量)(确)(实)(起)(作)(用)(,但)(在)(赛)(道)(上)(跑)(得)(怎)(样)(得)(看)(赛)(车)(手)(的)(水)(平)(,同)(一)(个)(队)(中)(驾)(驶)(同)(样)(的)(赛)(车)(成)(绩)(不)(也)(是)(有)(差)(别)(吗)(,所)(以)(核)(心)(还)(是)(赛)(车)(手)(的)(能)(力)(,这)(跟)(马)(术)(比)(赛)(是)(同)(样)(的)(道)(理)(,马)(匹)(也)(有)(贵)(贱)(,好)(像)(没)(有)(人)(去)(质)(疑)(马)(术)(比)(赛)(就)(没)(有)(体)(育)(魅)(力)(了)(,我)(觉)(得)(这)(些)(高)(科)(技)(成)(分)(进)(入)(到)(体)(育)(是)(促)(进)(作)(用)(,那)(些)(新)(的)(世)(界)(纪)(录)(里)(本)(身)(就)(包)(含)(了)(运)(动)(员)(能)(力)(和)(器)(材)(科)(技)(水)(平)(。
  郑)(斌)(:两)(位)(说)(的)(都)(是)(科)(技)(进)(入)(体)(育)(主)(要)(是)(器)(材)(对)(运)(动)(本)(身)(的)(改)(变)(,我)(想)(说)(的)(则)(是)(科)(技)(进)(入)(体)(育)(引)(发)(的)(负)(面)(状)(况)(,我)(这)(么)(多)(年)(一)(直)(是)(做)(国)(际)(反)(兴)(奋)(剂)(研)(究)(的)(,老)(实)(说)(,兴)(奋)(剂)(的)(更)(新)(换)(代)(过)(程)(中)(科)(技)(起)(了)(不)(可)(推)(卸)(的)(责)(任)(,从)(最)(原)(始)(的)(类)(固)(醇)(到)(后)(促)(血)(红)(蛋)(白)(再)(到)(新)(型)(的)(类)(固)(醇)(THG,以)(及)(现)(在)(研)(究)(的)(基)(因)(兴)(奋)(剂)(,这)(其)(中)(全)(是)(科)(技)(在)(起)(作)(用)(,所)(谓)(道)(高)(一)(尺)(魔)(高)(一)(丈)(。在)(这)(些)(研)(究)(兴)(奋)(剂)(的)(机)(构)(看)(来)(,这)(里)(是)(实)(实)(在)(在)(的)(利)(益)(,对)(于)(使)(用)(兴)(奋)(剂)(的)(运)(动)(员)(来)(说)(,体)(育)(魅)(力)(和)(体)(育)(精)(神)(与)(其)(无)(关)(,这)(些)(机)(构)(和)(这)(些)(运)(动)(员)(才)(是)(体)(育)(发)(展)(的)(障)(碍)(,科)(技)(算)(是)(帮)(凶)(,当)(然)(这)(只)(是)(从)(这)(个)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,就)(像)(武)(器)(的)(两)(面)(性)(一)(样)(。
  基)(因)(催)(生)(
  “特)(种)(人)(类)(”?
  郑)(斌)(:我)(觉)(得)(我)(们)(前)(面)(讨)(论)(的)(与)(基)(因)(组)(编)(辑)(对)(体)(育)(的)(冲)(击)(来)(比)(简)(直)(就)(是)(不)(值)(一)(提)(的)(,这)(则)(新)(闻)(我)(也)(关)(注)(到)(了)(,尽)(管)(英)(国)(科)(学)(家)(们)(是)(从)(研)(究)(的)(角)(度)(出)(发)(,也)(得)(到)(了)(政)(府)(的)(许)(可)(,但)(这)(对)(体)(育)(来)(说)(将)(面)(临)(一)(个)(非)(常)(大)(的)(麻)(烦)(。我)(们)(知)(道)(,现)(在)(WADA正)(在)(大)(力)(研)(究)(和)(寻)(找)(基)(因)(兴)(奋)(剂)(的)(防)(治)(办)(法)(,也)(出)(台)(了)(一)(些)(反)(基)(因)(兴)(奋)(剂)(的)(措)(施)(,但)(如)(果)(基)(因)(组)(编)(辑)(被)(允)(许)(且)(广)(泛)(应)(用)(的)(话)(,不)(仅)(各)(国)(的)(反)(兴)(奋)(剂)(工)(作)(受)(影)(响)(,WADA在)(反)(基)(因)(兴)(奋)(剂)(方)(面)(的)(措)(施)(也)(面)(临)(改)(变)(,要)(重)(新)(界)(定)(基)(因)(兴)(奋)(剂)(的)(概)(念)(等)(,现)(在)(已)(经)(允)(许)(变)(性)(人)(参)(加)(奥)(运)(会)(,那)(将)(来)(这)(种)(基)(因)(组)(编)(辑)(过)(的)(人)(是)(不)(是)(也)(能)(合)(法)(参)(赛)(呢)(,未)(来)(这)(种)(影)(响)(程)(度)(无)(法)(估)(量)(。
  金)(汕)(:以)(前)(看)(过)(英)(国)(那)(个)(多)(利)(羊)(的)(新)(闻)(,就)(是)(采)(用)(科)(技)(手)(段)(,通)(过)(基)(因)(复)(制)(,这)(个)(小)(羊)(我)(记)(得)(已)(经)(死)(了)(。当)(时)(也)(出)(现)(过)(非)(常)(广)(泛)(的)(讨)(论)(,就)(是)(关)(于)(这)(项)(基)(因)(技)(术)(在)(人)(类)(中)(的)(应)(用)(,也)(有)(各)(种)(担)(忧)(,甚)(至)(有)(人)(还)(担)(心)(希)(特)(勒)(被)(复)(制)(从)(而)(引)(发)(全)(新)(的)(世)(界)(大)(战)(。我)(觉)(得)(一)(个)(新)(的)(科)(研)(项)(目)(提)(出)(引)(发)(种)(种)(猜)(测)(和)(担)(心)(这)(很)(正)(常)(,因)(为)(正)(是)(通)(过)(这)(种)(讨)(论)(让)(社)(会)(各)(方)(面)(有)(了)(充)(分)(的)(认)(识)(,并)(且)(制)(定)(出)(各)(种)(配)(套)(措)(施)(,现)(在)(看)(当)(时)(对)(基)(因)(复)(制)(的)(担)(心)(已)(经)(不)(存)(在)(了)(,因)(此)(无)(论)(是)(科)(学)(界)(还)(是)(各)(国)(政)(府)(都)(对)(这)(种)(基)(因)(复)(制)(的)(范)(围)(作)(出)(明)(确)(规)(定)(。所)(以)(,我)(想)(就)(算)(基)(因)(组)(编)(辑)(项)(目)(被)(允)(许)(,也)(不)(会)(如)(同)(感)(冒)(药)(一)(样)(在)(社)(会)(上)(广)(泛)(普)(遍)(使)(用)(,从)(而)(出)(现)(大)(量)(“特)(种)(人)(”,甚)(至)(这)(种)(技)(术)(可)(能)(在)(体)(育)(界)(被)(禁)(止)(使)(用)(,但)(对)(反)(兴)(奋)(剂)(组)(织)(来)(说)(倒)(是)(好)(事)(,通)(过)(这)(种)(科)(研)(手)(段)(来)(检)(测)(有)(无)(运)(动)(员)(基)(因)(组)(是)(否)(编)(辑)(。
  白)(志)(标)(:如)(果)(这)(种)(基)(因)(组)(编)(辑)(得)(到)(允)(许)(且)(广)(泛)(使)(用)(的)(话)(,除)(了)(在)(反)(兴)(奋)(剂)(工)(作)(上)(可)(能)(引)(发)(混)(乱)(外)(,对)(体)(育)(最)(大)(的)(影)(响)(就)(是)(在)(参)(赛)(人)(员)(类)(别)(上)(增)(加)(了)(一)(个)(“新)(人)(类)(”。如)(果)(人)(从)(小)(因)(为)(某)(种)(原)(因)(就)(对)(基)(因)(组)(编)(辑)(了)(呢)(,之)(后)(走)(上)(专)(业)(运)(动)(员)(道)(路)(,就)(算)(反)(兴)(奋)(剂)(组)(织)(检)(测)(出)(来)(了)(,但)(这)(并)(不)(是)(为)(了)(有)(意)(改)(变)(运)(动)(成)(绩)(所)(为)(,因)(此)(也)(无)(法)(进)(行)(惩)(罚)(,因)(此)(将)(来)(唯)(一)(的)(办)(法)(就)(是)(通)(过)(分)(类)(,届)(时)(奥)(运)(会)(的)(参)(赛)(选)(手)(分)(类)(极)(有)(可)(能)(如)(残)(奥)(会)(一)(样)(各)(种)(分)(级)(,至)(于)(成)(绩)(,无)(疑)(会)(出)(现)(超)(越)(以)(往)(原)(本)(认)(为)(人)(类)(极)(限)(的)(各)(种)(纪)(录)(。所)(以)(,我)(觉)(得)(现)(在)(担)(忧)(是)(没)(用)(的)(,社)(会)(各)(界)(不)(仅)(是)(体)(育)(界)(,都)(要)(开)(始)(提)(前)(考)(虑)(假)(如)(真)(有)(了)(“特)(种)(人)(”的)(应)(对)(策)(略)(。
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