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中国对南海U型线缺法律依据

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月21日 09:22:33
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(  尽)(快)(强)(化)(南)(海)(U形)(线)(法)(律)(性)(质)(
  今)(年)(6月)(3日)(,位)(于)(荷)(兰)(海)(牙)(的)(国)(际)(仲)(裁)(法)(庭)(发)(出)(“庭)(令)(”,要)(求)(中)(国)(对)(菲)(律)(宾)(提)(出)(的)(中)(菲)(两)(国)(南)(海)(领)(土)(争)(议)(作)(出)(抗)(辩)(。如)(果)(中)(方)(在)(12月)(5日)(之)(前)(未)(应)(诉)(,国)(际)(仲)(裁)(法)(庭)(将)(对)(中)(国)(进)(行)(缺)(席)(裁)(决)(。菲)(此)(次)(将)(焦)(点)(放)(在)(中)(国)(南)(海)(海)(域)(U形)(线)(的)(合)(法)(性)(上)(,此)(举)(还)(具)(有)(“示)(范)(”效)(应)(,越)(南)(已)(表)(示)(考)(虑)(采)(取)(这)(一)(途)(径)(。目)(前)(,在)(是)(否)(采)(用)(国)(际)(司)(法)(解)(决)(南)(海)(争)(端)(问)(题)(上)(,部)(分)(南)(海)(声)(索)(国)(的)(坚)(持)(和)(我)(国)(的)(反)(对)(呈)(现)(胶)(着)(状)(态)(。
  我)(国)(对)(于)(南)(海)(海)(域)(U形)(线)(的)(声)(索)(依)(据)(主)(要)(是)(“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”。目)(前)(,我)(国)(面)(临)(的)(困)(境)(是)(对)(U形)(线)(的)(“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”阐)(述)(模)(糊)(。更)(大)(的)(挑)(战)(是)(,中)(国)(法)(律)(也)(没)(有)(给)(U形)(线)(赋)(予)(明)(确)(的)(法)(律)(身)(份)(和)(地)(位)(。比)(如)(《中)(华)(人)(民)(共)(和)(国)(专)(属)(经)(济)(区)(和)(大)(陆)(架)(法)(》对)(南)(海)(海)(域)(性)(质)(和)(归)(属)(问)(题)(没)(有)(进)(行)(解)(释)(或)(说)(明)(,该)(法)(只)(是)(在)(第)(14条)(规)(定)(“本)(法)(的)(规)(定)(不)(影)(响)(中)(华)(人)(民)(共)(和)(国)(享)(有)(的)(历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”。
  笔)(者)(认)(为)(,在)(南)(海)(U形)(线)(“国)(界)(线)(说)(”、“岛)(屿)(归)(属)(线)(说)(”、“历)(史)(性)(水)(域)(线)(说)(”、“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(线)(说)(”四)(种)(法)(律)(解)(释)(中)(,“岛)(屿)(归)(属)(线)(说)(”的)(事)(实)(和)(法)(理)(依)(据)(最)(充)(分)(。该)(条)(线)(从)(产)(生)(之)(初)(就)(是)(作)(为)(一)(条)(岛)(屿)(归)(属)(线)(来)(宣)(示)(主)(权)(。“岛)(屿)(归)(属)(线)(说)(”主)(张)(南)(海)(诸)(岛)(主)(权)(属)(于)(中)(国)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,按)(照)(《联)(合)(国)(海)(洋)(法)(公)(约)(》来)(划)(定)(中)(国)(在)(南)(海)(海)(域)(的)(领)(海)(、专)(属)(经)(济)(区)(以)(及)(大)(陆)(架)(。这)(既)(符)(合)(U形)(线)(出)(现)(、发)(展)(的)(历)(史)(过)(程)(,也)(更)(有)(利)(于)(保)(护)(中)(国)(在)(南)(海)(海)(域)(中)(的)(权)(益)(。
  笔)(者)(建)(议)(,如)(果)(划)(定)(的)(专)(属)(经)(济)(区)(没)(有)(达)(到)(U形)(线)(的)(距)(离)(,可)(再)(辅)(以)(U形)(线)(的)(“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”。在)(“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”线)(内)(,中)(国)(享)(有)(海)(洋)(渔)(业)(资)(源)(、海)(底)(油)(气)(资)(源)(、矿)(产)(资)(源)(的)(开)(发)(利)(用)(优)(先)(权)(。笔)(者)(认)(为)(,“岛)(屿)(归)(属)(线)(”的)(法)(律)(性)(质)(加)(上)(“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”解)(释)(,能)(够)(让)(南)(海)(其)(他)(声)(索)(国)(理)(性)(认)(识)(中)(国)(的)(声)(索)(主)(张)(。
  目)(前)(,由)(于)(U形)(线)(的)(法)(律)(性)(质)(不)(明)(确)(,就)(使)(得)(相)(关)(声)(索)(国)(在)(借)(助)(国)(际)(司)(法)(质)(疑)(U形)(线)(合)(法)(性)(时)(,中)(国)(的)(处)(境)(非)(常)(尴)(尬)(。如)(果)(我)(国)(对)(菲)(就)(南)(海)(问)(题)(提)(起)(的)(仲)(裁)(坚)(持)(不)(应)(诉)(的)(立)(场)(,那)(么)(至)(少)(应)(该)(提)(前)(表)(明)(立)(场)(,澄)(清)(U形)(线)(的)(法)(律)(性)(质)(,以)(有)(效)(地)(影)(响)(海)(牙)(国)(际)(仲)(裁)(法)(庭)(的)(裁)(决)(。
  我)(国)(在)(澄)(清)(U形)(线)(的)(法)(律)(性)(质)(时)(,有)(三)(项)(工)(作)(必)(须)(切)(实)(推)(进)(:一)(是)(要)(动)(员)(国)(内)(的)(测)(绘)(力)(量)(摸)(清)(南)(海)(的)(水)(下)(地)(形)(地)(貌)(。包)(括)(所)(有)(声)(索)(国)(主)(权)(所)(属)(的)(海)(岸)(、岛)(屿)(和)(岛)(礁)(的)(经)(纬)(度)(。二)(是)(要)(加)(大)(高)(水)(平)(国)(际)(海)(洋)(法)(人)(才)(的)(培)(养)(力)(度)(。三)(是)(要)(倡)(导)(建)(立)(南)(海)(声)(索)(国)(机)(制)(,该)(机)(制)(成)(员)(包)(括)(南)(海)(的)(六)(个)(声)(索)(国)((中)(、越)(、菲)(、文)(、马)(、印)(尼)()。届)(时)(中)(国)(可)(在)(这)(一)(区)(域)(性)(争)(端)(解)(决)(机)(制)(下)(把)(“历)(史)(性)(权)(利)(”转)(化)(为)(可)(操)(作)(的)(海)(洋)(资)(源)(权)(要)(求)(。
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